Black coal from Värtaverket, Stockholm   Bituminous coal, also known as black coal was used in Sweden for electricity and heat production until 2022 and for steel production until 2042.   Crude oil   Crude oil, also known as petroleum or naphtha, was the resource that besides coal epitomised the fossil era and that fueled industrialization, economic expansion and modernization in the 20th century. Crude oil is an extracted resource from which a range of petroleum products were produced. In oil refineries, crude oil was separated into petrol, diesel, kerosene, paraffin, fuel oil, lubricating oil and bitumen (asphalt), all petroleum products on which much of modern life was built.   Petrol / Gasoline   Petrol, a liquid fuel refined from crude oil, predominantly used for internal combustion engines in automobile cars, became the dominant transport fuel in the 20th century for personal car transportation. Petrol use was phased out due to rapid electrification of personal transportation since the 2020’s. Sales of petrol motors and vehicles were prohibited in Sweden and other EU countries in 2030, and global petrol demand peaked the same year. Petrol production fell drastically in the coming decade, partly substituted with renewable transport fuels such as biomethanol, cellulose-based ethanol and biogas.

Black coal from Värtaverket, Stockholm

Bituminous coal, also known as black coal was used in Sweden for electricity and heat production until 2022 and for steel production until 2042.

Crude oil

Crude oil, also known as petroleum or naphtha, was the resource that besides coal epitomised the fossil era and that fueled industrialization, economic expansion and modernization in the 20th century. Crude oil is an extracted resource from which a range of petroleum products were produced. In oil refineries, crude oil was separated into petrol, diesel, kerosene, paraffin, fuel oil, lubricating oil and bitumen (asphalt), all petroleum products on which much of modern life was built.

Petrol / Gasoline

Petrol, a liquid fuel refined from crude oil, predominantly used for internal combustion engines in automobile cars, became the dominant transport fuel in the 20th century for personal car transportation. Petrol use was phased out due to rapid electrification of personal transportation since the 2020’s. Sales of petrol motors and vehicles were prohibited in Sweden and other EU countries in 2030, and global petrol demand peaked the same year. Petrol production fell drastically in the coming decade, partly substituted with renewable transport fuels such as biomethanol, cellulose-based ethanol and biogas.

Insects are threatened  both directly by a changed climate, and indirectly when we change land-use to grow more crop for renewable fuel, allow encroachment of trees and shrubs in pastures without grazing or mowing, and plant pastures with forest. Many wild bees, butterflies and other insects depend on pastures and many beetles depend on old trees and dead wood, environments that are lost in intensively used agricultural and forestry landscapes. Insects play key roles in ecosystems, and drastic changes in the number of insects and species composition can lead to major changes to our ecosystems, and threaten our food production.

Insects are threatened both directly by a changed climate, and indirectly when we change land-use to grow more crop for renewable fuel, allow encroachment of trees and shrubs in pastures without grazing or mowing, and plant pastures with forest. Many wild bees, butterflies and other insects depend on pastures and many beetles depend on old trees and dead wood, environments that are lost in intensively used agricultural and forestry landscapes. Insects play key roles in ecosystems, and drastic changes in the number of insects and species composition can lead to major changes to our ecosystems, and threaten our food production.

Peter Låg, Miss Smilla's Memories of Snow, 2053   [Insert description]   Plastiglomerete, a rock type of the Antropocen.   The first discovery of Plastiglomerate was made in Hawaii in 2014. This rock type, consisting of plastic fused with sediments of various kinds such as stone, sand, shells and corals, has emerged during the human age and the era we gave the name Anthropocene. Plastiglomerate can be formed anywhere where there is plastic and a heat source as in forest fire, in the remains of a fireplace or through lava flows.

Peter Låg, Miss Smilla's Memories of Snow, 2053

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Plastiglomerete, a rock type of the Antropocen.

The first discovery of Plastiglomerate was made in Hawaii in 2014. This rock type, consisting of plastic fused with sediments of various kinds such as stone, sand, shells and corals, has emerged during the human age and the era we gave the name Anthropocene. Plastiglomerate can be formed anywhere where there is plastic and a heat source as in forest fire, in the remains of a fireplace or through lava flows.

Lund Cathedral, without solar cells.   [Insert Description]

Lund Cathedral, without solar cells.

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Carbon Clock   The “carbon clock” developed by the Mercator Institute in 2015 showed the time left until the global carbon budget (for a 1.5 degree world) was depleted. In 2021 the clock became well known through its projection on parliaments around the world.

Carbon Clock

The “carbon clock” developed by the Mercator Institute in 2015 showed the time left until the global carbon budget (for a 1.5 degree world) was depleted. In 2021 the clock became well known through its projection on parliaments around the world.

Graphite, black, C, unknown origin   Graphite is the only fossil which is still in use. It was extensively used in the production of steel but has been mostly replaced. It is still used in batteries and for other purposes where its use does not result in emissions of carbon dioxide.

Graphite, black, C, unknown origin

Graphite is the only fossil which is still in use. It was extensively used in the production of steel but has been mostly replaced. It is still used in batteries and for other purposes where its use does not result in emissions of carbon dioxide.

Cow Pat   This stinky piece of manure came to be hotly debated during the transition years. Cow’s methane-filled burps are undeniably bad for the earth’s climate, but their manure makes great fertiliser and their grasing is good for bio-diversity. The passing of TAP meant decreasing cow numbers – we never really agreed on what the right number is – but as you know, classics such as the  fettisdagsbulle  and  meatballs  are still around but restricted to once a year!

Cow Pat

This stinky piece of manure came to be hotly debated during the transition years. Cow’s methane-filled burps are undeniably bad for the earth’s climate, but their manure makes great fertiliser and their grasing is good for bio-diversity. The passing of TAP meant decreasing cow numbers – we never really agreed on what the right number is – but as you know, classics such as the fettisdagsbulle and meatballs are still around but restricted to once a year!